The Federal Reserve Bank of New York works to promote sound and well-functioning financial systems and markets through its provision of industry and payment services, advancement of infrastructure reform in key markets and training and educational support to international institutions.
Regional & Community Outreach connects the Bank to Main Street via structured dialogues and two-way conversations on small business, mortgages, and household credit.
Economic Education improves public knowledge about the Federal Reserve System, monetary policy implementation, and promoting financial stability through the Museum and programs for K-16 students and educators, and the community.
We argue that the defining feature of large and complex banks that makes their failures messy is their reliance on runnable financial liabilities that confer liquidity or money-like services that may be impaired or destroyed in bankruptcy. To make large bank failures more orderly, we advocate that systemically important bank holding companies be required to issue “bail-inable” long-term debt that converts to equity in resolution. This reassures holders of uninsured liabilities that their claims will be honored in resolution, making them less likely to run. In a novel finding, we show that bail-inable debt and equity are not perfect substitutes in terms of stemming bank runs. Finally, we argue that the long-term debt requirement should be increasing in the amount of uninsured financial liabilities the bank has issued. This has the advantage of tying the requirement to the sources of messy failures, and it tends to internalize the externalities associated with issuance of uninsured financial liabilities.